Review ArticlesMicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Disease Perspectives and RealityPapageorgiou, Nikolaos MD, PhD; Tslamandris, Sotirios MD; Giolis, Anastasios MD, PhD; Tousoulis, Dimitris MD, PhD, FESC, FACCAuthor Information From the 1st Cardiology Department, Hippokration Hospital, Athens University Medical School, Athens, Greece. Disclosure: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. Correspondence: Dimitris Tousoulis, MD, PhD, FESC, FACC, 1st Cardiology Department, Athens University Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Vasilisis Sofias 114, 115 28 Athens, Greece. E-mail: [email protected]. Cardiology in Review: May/June 2016 - Volume 24 - Issue 3 - p 110-118 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000078 Buy Metrics Abstract Since the discovery of the first noncoding RNA decades ago, the transcriptomics evolution has made a great leap reaching to the detection and recognition of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the early 1990s. Thereafter, numerous miRNAs were reported in different species, with a great body of literature focusing on their role in human health and in pathophysiological processes. miRNAs play a significant role in the cardiovascular system, not only in physiology and normal development but also in disease processes and evolution. Further studies on miRNAs have highlighted their participation in several expressions of cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, acute and chronic syndromes of coronary artery disease, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. To date, the challenge remains to understand the underlying mechanisms of miRNAs that drive their expression profile so as to use them as innovative diagnostic tools or therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.