Review ArticlesIron Oxide Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents in Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging Do They Open New Perspectives in Cardiovascular Imaging?Ploussi, Agapi G. MSc*; Gazouli, Maria PhD†; Stathis, George MD*; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. MD, PhD*; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P. PhD*Author Information From the *Second Department of Radiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; and †Department of Basic Medical Science, Laboratory of Biology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Disclosure: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. Correspondence: Efstathios P. Efstathopoulos, PhD, Second Department of Radiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 1, Rimini Str, 124 62 Haidari, Athens, Greece. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Cardiology in Review: September/October 2015 - Volume 23 - Issue 5 - p 229-235 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000055 Buy Metrics Abstract Molecular magnetic resonance imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the detection and assessment of cardiovascular diseases. Contrast agents have an important role in this novel modality because molecular imaging requires highly sensitive, specific, and efficient imaging agents. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are a new class of contrast agents with unique properties that provide special opportunities in cardiovascular molecular imaging. IONs are captured by macrophages and can be successfully used in the detection and evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques, abdominal aortic aneurysms, and inflammations related to myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief description of the basic characteristics of IONs, with a special focus on their role as molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and their cardiovascular applications. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.