Vascular and Heart Diseases in the Incumbent Presidents and Vice Presidents of the United States of America: A Medical-Historical PerspectiveFrishman, William H. MD*; Zimmerman, Franklin H. MD*§; Lerner, Robert G. MD*Cardiology in Review: January/February 2013 - Volume 21 - Issue 1 - p 1–8 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0b013e31827303b5 Review Articles Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Vascular diseases have been the major cause of death and disability in presidents and vice presidents of the United States. Untreated hypertension and cigarette smoking have contributed greatly to this increased morbidity and mortality risk, which has impacted on historical events, especially in the 20th century. In this article, the medical histories of those incumbent Presidents and Vice Presidents who suffered from coronary artery and cerebrovascular diseases will be reviewed. A discussion of how atrial fibrillation has affected the Presidents is also included. From the *Department of Medicine, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY and §Department of Medicine, Phelps Memorial Hospital Center, Sleepy Hollow, NY. Disclosure: The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Correspondence: William H. Frishman, MD, Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Munger 263, Valhalla, NY 10595. E-mail: William_Frishman@nymc.edu © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.