Review ArticleCardiovascular Drug Therapy in the ElderlyAronow, Wilbert S. MD*; Frishman, William H. MD*; Cheng-Lai, Angela PharmD†Author Information From the *Department of Medicine, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York; and the †Department of Pharmacy, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York. Correspondence: Wilbert S. Aronow, MD, Cardiology Division, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Macy Pavilion, Room 138, Valhalla, NY 10595. E-mail: email@example.com. Cardiology in Review: July-August 2007 - Volume 15 - Issue 4 - p 195-215 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0b013e3180301b69 Buy Metrics Abstract Pharmacokinetic considerations in the elderly include absorption, bioavailablility, drug distribution, half-life, drug metabolism, and drug excretion. There are numerous physiologic changes with aging that affect pharmacodynamics with alterations in end-organ responsiveness. This article discusses use of cardiovascular drugs in the elderly including digoxin, diuretics, β-adrenergic blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, α-adrenergic blockers, antiarrhythmic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, and anticoagulants. This article also discusses the adverse effects of cardiovascular drugs in the elderly, medications best to avoid in the elderly, and the prudent use of medications in the elderly. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.