Review ArticleEpidemiology, Pathophysiology, Prognosis, and Treatment of Systolic and Diastolic Heart FailureAronow, Wilbert S. MD, FACCAuthor Information From the Department of Medicine, Divisions of Cardiology, Geriatrics, and Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, Westchester Medical Center/New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York. Reprints: Wilbert S. Aronow, MD, Cardiology Division, New York Medical College, Macy Pavilion, Room 138, Valhalla, NY 10595. E-mail: [email protected]. Cardiology in Review: May 2006 - Volume 14 - Issue 3 - p 108-124 doi: 10.1097/01.crd.0000175289.87583.e5 Buy Metrics Abstract Underlying causes, risk factors, and precipitating causes of heart failure (HF) should be treated. Drugs known to precipitate or aggravate HF such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs should be stopped. Patients with HF and a low left ventricular ejection fraction (systolic heart failure) or normal ejection fraction (diastolic HF) should be treated with diuretics if fluid retention is present, with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker if the patient cannot tolerate an ACE inhibitor because of cough, angioneurotic edema, rash, or altered taste sensation, and with a beta blocker unless contraindicated. If severe systolic HF persists, an aldosterone antagonist should be added. If HF persists, isosorbide dinitrate plus hydralazine should be added. Calcium channel blockers should be avoided if systolic HF is present. Digoxin should be avoided in men and women with diastolic HF if sinus rhythm is present and in women with systolic HF. Digoxin should be given to men with systolic HF if symptoms persist, but the serum digoxin level should be maintained between 0.5 and 0.8 ng/mL. © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.