Review ArticleBiofeedback Applications in the Treatment of Cardiovascular DiseasesKranitz, Linda JD*; Lehrer, Paul PhD†Author Information From the *Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ; and the †Department of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ. Reprints: Paul Lehrer, PhD, Professor of Psychiatry, UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 671 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854. E-mail: [email protected] Cardiology in Review: May-June 2004 - Volume 12 - Issue 3 - p 177-181 doi: 10.1097/01.crd.0000107893.17799.95 Buy Metrics Abstract Cardiovascular diseases impair the lives of millions of Americans each year. Researchers have studied a variety of nonpharmacologic interventions in an attempt to discover their use as therapies for these diseases. Various methods of biofeedback have shown promise in the treatment or management of several cardiovascular disorders. The literature relating to the use of biofeedback therapies for hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, cardiac ischemia, myocardial infarction, and Raynaud's phenomenon is reviewed. The number and types of studies in each of these areas vary widely, but research to date suggests that biofeedback could be a useful alternative or adjunct to more conventional forms of treatment. Further research to clarify the appropriate uses of biofeedback in the management of these disorders is recommended. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.