For over a decade, symptom distress has been a key concept in several studies of cancer. However, the definition of symptom distress is still unclear, and there are few measures targeting symptom distress, in general, and specific cancers, in particular. Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of death in American men. Many men with clinically localized prostate cancer may experience unique and multidimensional symptoms that occur from diagnosis through treatment, and thereafter. These symptoms associated with the disease and its treatments are in the form of physical and psychological sequelae such as urinary and bowel problems and sexual dysfunction. The purposes of this article are to (1) systematically review literature on symptoms and symptom distress in localized prostate cancer and (2) synthesize evidence of symptom distress applications and measurement in this group. A comprehensive, systematic review was conducted to identify original, data-based studies of symptoms and symptom distress in localized prostate cancer. Clarification of symptom distress and more comprehensive information about symptoms and symptom distress will provide nurses with a better foundation for developing self-management interventions aimed at ameliorating symptom distress and, ultimately, enhancing the quality of life of patients with localized prostate cancer.