Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Breast Cancer Survivors’ Psychological and Spiritual Well-being and Sleep Quality

A Randomized Controlled Trial in South Korea

Yun, Mi Ra RN, PhD; Song, Misoon PhD; Jung, Kyung-Hae MD; Yu, Boas J. EdD, RN, FNP-BC, CNE, GCNS; Lee, Kyung Jae BA

doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000443

Background: Most breast cancer survivors experience psychological and spiritual distress, including depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and loss of meaningfulness in life. This distress can negatively impact physical health, quality of life, and quality of sleep.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare and examine the effectiveness of mind subtraction meditation (MSM) and a self-management education (SME) group on breast cancer survivors.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with South Korean female breast cancer survivors (stages I-III). Self-reported questionnaires were administered to both MSM group (n = 22) and SME group (n = 24) to measure psychological and spiritual well-being, as well as quality of sleep.

Results: Compared with the SME group, the MSM group reported a significant decrease in depression (P = .034), anxiety (P = .036), and perceived stress (P = .009) and an increase in quality of life (P < .001), satisfaction with life (P < .001), posttraumatic growth (P = .007), and quality of sleep (P = .010).

Conclusions: Mind subtraction meditation may have positive therapeutic effects among breast cancer survivors. This meditation program may be useful to manage psychological and spiritual distress, as well as improve quality of life and sleep, in clinical settings among breast cancer survivors.

Implications for Practice: This study demonstrated the clinical effectiveness and the feasibility of applying the MSM method to breast cancer survivors. The participants had a high attendance rate in the program, which speaks to the likelihood of the applicability of the meditation program on an outpatient basis.

Author Affiliations: College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University (Dr Yun); College of Nursing, Seoul National University (Dr Song); and Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine (Dr Jung), Seoul, South Korea; Henry P. Becton School of Nursing and Allied Health, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, New Jersey (Dr Yu); and Center for Human Completion, Seoul, South Korea (Mr Lee).

M.R.Y. and M.S. are first authors.

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Correspondence: Boas J. Yu, EdD, RN, FNP-BC, CNE, GCNS, Henry P. Becton School of Nursing and Allied Health, Fairleigh Dickinson University, 1000 River Rd, Teaneck, NJ 07666-1914 (;

Accepted for publication August 30, 2016.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved