Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Farsi Version of the Mammography Self-efficacy Scale for Iranian Women

Hashemian, Masoumeh MSc; Hidarnia, Alireza PhD; Aminshokravi, Farkhondeh PhD; Lamyian, Minoor PhD; Hassanpour, Kazem PhD; Akaberi, Arash MSc; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat PhD

doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000238

Background: Self-efficacy is a crucial factor in adopting mammography behavior. A reliable and valid instrument is necessary to measure self-efficacy among Iranian women.

Objective: The aim of this study is to translate the original version of Champion’s Mammography Self-efficacy Scale into Farsi and then to estimate the Farsi version’s reliability and validity.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 200 women 40 years or older who were referred to health centers in Iran were invited to complete the related questionnaires during an interview. Cronbach’s α coefficients and item-total correlations were measured to evaluate the reliability of the scales. Content and face validities were evaluated using the opinions of a panel of experts, and construct validity was estimated through applying confirmatory factor analysis. Logistic regression and χ2 tests were used to estimate theoretical relationships.

Results: In terms of reliability, the internal consistency α was .904 and the test-retest reliability correlation over a 4-week period was 0.624. With regard to the confirmatory factor analysis, the proportion of χ2 to degrees of freedom was 0.394, giving a P value of .852 and a root-mean-square error of approximation less than 0.001 with confidence intervals of less than 0.001 and 0.018, with a comparative fit index of 1, normed fit index of 0.999, relative fit index of 0.993, and incremental fit index of 1.

Conclusion: The items that form the self-efficacy measurement scale in the Farsi version are highly reliable and valid.

Implications for Practice: Healthcare professionals and nursing health communities may apply the instrument to determine women’s self-efficacy and to plan appropriate educational interventions, aiming at promoting women’s mammography behavior.

Author Affiliations: Department of Health Education (Ms Hashemian, Dr Hidarnia, Dr Aminshokravi, and Dr Tavafian); Department of Midwifery (Dr Lamyian), Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran; Department of Pediatric, Sabzevar University, Sabzevar (Dr Hassanpour); and Department of Biostatistics, North Khorasan University, Bojnurd, Iran (Mr Akaberi).

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Correspondence: Farkhondeh Aminshokravi, PhD, Department of Health Education, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box, Tehran 14155-4838, Iran (

Accepted for publication December 18, 2014.

Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved