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Mammography Self-Efficacy Scale and Breast Cancer Fear Scale: Psychometric Testing of the Turkish Versions

Secginli, Selda PhD

doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e3182331a9a

Background: Self-efficacy for mammography and breast cancer fear are important determinants to mammography use. No tools to measure these beliefs of Turkish women have been validated.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Turkish versions of the Mammography Self-Efficacy Scale (MSS-T) and the Champion Breast Cancer Fear Scale (CBCFS-T).

Methods: Mammography Self-Efficacy Scale and Champion Breast Cancer Fear Scale were translated to Turkish language, validated by an expert panel, back translated, and tested. Cronbach α coefficients and item-total correlations were measured to evaluate the reliability of the scales. Exploratory factor analysis was used to estimate construct validity of the scales. Independent t tests, χ2 tests, and logistic regression analyses were used to test theoretical relationships.

Results: Factor analysis yielded 1 factor for MSS-T and 2 factors for CBCFS-T with eigenvalues greater than 1. Internal consistency values presented acceptable Cronbach α levels of .90 for MSS-T and .90 for CBCFS-T, and test-retest reliability correlations were 0.56 for MSS-T and 0.60 for CBCFS-T.

Conclusions: The MSS-T and CBCFS-T demonstrated acceptable preliminary values of reliability and validity. Further psychometric testing is recommended with women living in different regions of Turkey.

Implications for Practice: The scales can offer insights to nurses and other healthcare professionals about mammography self-efficacy beliefs, emotional needs, and concerns of Turkish women related to breast cancer fear. The scales may be useful as process measures to assess the efficacy of interventions designed to alter self-efficacy and fear and subsequently improve the mammography rates.

Author Affiliation: Nursing Faculty, Public Health Nursing Department, University of Istanbul, Sisli, Turkey.

The author has no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Correspondence: Selda Secginli, PhD, Nursing Faculty, Public Health Nursing Department, University of Istanbul, Sisli, Istanbul, Turkey 34381 (;

Accepted for publication August 14, 2011.

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.