Victoria Champion used the constructs of the Health Belief Model as the foundation for developing Champion's Health Belief Scales for Mammography Screening (CHBMS). The instrument has been used to collect health beliefs about breast screening behaviors among various ethnic populations but has not been translated, adapted, or psychometrically evaluated in the Hispanic population.
The purpose of this article was to report the translation and adaptation process from English to Spanish and the psychometric estimates of the validity and reliability of CHBMS-Spanish. The original instrument was translated from English to Spanish by a professional translator and back-translated into English by a focus group of healthcare professionals.
The tool was given to 5 monolingual women to evaluate for content validity, translation validity, and cultural appropriateness. A total of 200 self-identified Hispanic women, literate in speaking and reading Spanish, aged 45 to 75 years, and without history of breast cancer were included in the analyses.
The items of the scale formed coherent subsets that were relatively independent of each other and aligned to the 3 factors prescribed by the Health Belief Model constructs. Internal consistency values presented acceptable Cronbach α levels ranging from .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability correlations were .57 for susceptibility, .63 for benefits, and .83 for barriers.
Overall, the Spanish version of CHBMS demonstrated acceptable preliminary values of reliability and validity. Further psychometric testing is recommended.
Implications for Practice:
The Spanish version of the CHBMS can be used by practicing nurses as an instrument to assess health beliefs concerning mammography screening among Spanish-speaking Hispanic women.