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The Validity and Reliability of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors Among Iranian Women

Taymoori, Parvaneh PhD; Berry, Tanya PhD

doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181aaf124

Breast cancer is a global issue that continues to be the most diagnosed cancer in women. The incidence of breast cancer is increasing, and the incidence age for Iranian women is at least 10 years earlier than in western countries. Beliefs related to breast cancer have been found to be a factor in a woman's decision about breast screening behavior, and a valid and reliable questionnaire is necessary to the development of education interventions in this area. The aim of the current study was to translate the Champion Health Belief Model Scale to Farsi and to examine the psychometric properties of the Farsi version. A random sample of 606 employed women (20-69 years old) from Sanandaj, Iran, participated in the study. Construct validity of the Farsi version was supported through factor analysis. Nine factors emerged for breast self-examination (2 barriers factors, 2 benefits factors, 2 confidence factors, and 1 factor each related to seriousness, motivation, and susceptibly) and 6 factors related to mammography (barriers, seriousness, susceptibly, benefits, and 2 motivation factors). All items loaded on their respective factors except 1 item. It was concluded that the Farsi version of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale has the potential to measure beliefs related to breast self-examination and mammography with Iranian women. Further evaluation of the measure with different populations is warranted.

Authors' Affiliations: Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan Medical University, Sanandaj, Iran (Dr Taymoori); and Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (Dr Berry).

Funding received for this work from others.

Corresponding author: Parvaneh Taymoori, PhD, Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan Medical University, Pasdaran St, PO Box 66177-13391, Sanandaj, Iran (

Accepted for publication April 20, 2009.

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.