ARTICLESSubject Recruitment for Cancer Control Studies in an Adverse EnvironmentHeiney, Sue P. PhD, RN, CS, FAAN; Adams, Swann Arp PhD, MS; Cunningham, Joan E. PhD; McKenzie, Wendy BS; Harmon, Brook MS, RD; Hebert, James R. ScD, MSPH; Modayil, Mary MSAuthor Information From the Palmetto Health South Carolina Cancer Center(Dr Heiney) Columbia, SC; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, (Drs Adams and Hebert, Mss McKenzie, Harmon, and Modayil) and South Carolina Cancer Center (Dr Cunningham), University of South Carolina; and South Carolina Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program (Dr Hebert), Columbia, SC. The After Breast Cancer Study was supported by a grant from the Bonner Family Endowment, Palmetto Health Foundation. The Therapeutic Group by Teleconference was supported by a grant from the Palmetto Health Foundation. The EASE study was supported by a grant from the Department of Defense, No. DAMD17-03-1-0139. The Palmetto Women's Health Study was supported by a grant from the Department of Defense, No. DAMD17-00-1-0327. The Brassica Vegetable Intervention Study was supported by a grant from the Department of Defense, No. DAMD17-99-1-9279. Corresponding author: Sue P. Heiney, PhD, RN, CS, FAAN, Palmetto Health South Carolina Cancer Center, 7 Richland Medical Park Drive, Columbia, SC 29203 (e-mail: [email protected]). Accepted for publication April 13, 2006. Cancer Nursing: July 2006 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 - p 291-299 Buy Take the CE Test Abstract Subject recruitment in an adverse environment prompted researchers to identify a novel method to gain a different perspective on the problem. Lewin's Model of Change was used in a post hoc examination of recruitment strategies from 5 cancer control studies of breast or prostate cancer. Based on this evaluation, driving and restraining forces in recruitment were identified. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed based on this evaluation. Five categories of restrainers were identified from this evaluation and include sociocultural, institutional, individuals, budget, and study design. Conversely, only 3 categories of drivers were elucidated by the examination: sociocultural, institutional, and individuals. Lessons and recommendations ranged from addressing institutional barriers to capitalizing on public relations. Researchers entering a new environment for recruitment would benefit from using Lewin's force field analysis before writing a proposal or implementing a project. This approach better directs energy and resources and enhances the ability of the investigator to maintain a broad, less biased perspective. © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.