Special Focus: Sports MedicineCurrent paradigms in the prehospital care of exertional heat illness: A reviewAltman, Joshua MDa; Stern, Evan MDb; Stern, Mori MDc; Prine, Bryan MD, CAQ-SMd; Breuhl Smith, Kristy MDe; Smith, Michael Seth MD, CAQ-SM, PharmDdAuthor Information aDepartment of Emergency Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL bNorth Florida Regional Medical Center Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL cDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL dDepartment of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation/Family Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL eDepartment of Community Health and Family Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL Financial Disclosure: The authors report no conflicts of interest. Correspondence to Joshua Altman, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, 1329 SW 16th Street, P.O. Box 100186, Gainesville, FL 32610-0186 Tel: +352-265-6911; fax: +352-265-5606; e-mail: [email protected]. Current Orthopaedic Practice: January-February 2020 - Volume 31 - Issue 1 - p 1-7 doi: 10.1097/BCO.0000000000000824 Buy Metrics Abstract Exertional heat illness, including muscle cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, occur each year in athletes and military soldiers. Exertional heat stroke, the most concerning type of exertional heat illness, is a life-threatening condition defined clinically by a core body temperature greater than 104° F (40°C) and central nervous system dysfunction. Heat stroke may lead to multiorgan failure and death and is one of the leading causes of nontraumatic death in athletes participating in outdoor activities. Current recommendations are discussed regarding prehospital and first responder care of exertional heat illness, particularly heat stroke, with an emphasis on rapid recognition, assessment, and implementation of cooling and advanced care strategies. This overview is of particular interest to orthopaedic team physicians who often are first responders on the field. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.