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Evaluation of Intragastric Vs Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Tests in the Evaluation of Insulin Resistance in a Rodent Model of Burn Injury and Glucagon-Like Polypeptide-1 Treatment

Watada, Susumu MD*; Yu, Yong-Ming MD, PhD*; Fischman, Alan J. MD, PhD; Kurihara, Tomohiro MD*; Shen, Chuan-an MD*; Tompkins, Ronald G. MD, ScD*; Fagan, Shawn MD*

doi: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e31828a8ede
Original Articles

Evaluation of glucose tolerance in rodent models is usually performed after intraperitroneal administration of glucose (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test [IPGTT]), whereas in humans the test is performed with oral glucose. Hyperglycemia is a major clinical manifestation of burn injury. Our previous studies using IPGTT have demonstrated burn injury–induced insulin resistance and the beneficial effects of glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) in improving insulin resistance. The goal of the present study is to compare the results of these two procedures under 1) burn injury–induced insulin resistance and 2) GLP-1 treatment after burn. Male CD rats were divided into three groups: sham burn, burn, and burn with GLP-1. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured during intragastric glucose tolerance test (IGGTT) on day 6 after 40% of full-thickness burn injury. The results were compared with our previous IPGTT. Blood glucose curves for IGGTT and IPGTT showed a similar pattern. However, IGGTT demonstrated a significant lower level of maximal blood glucose when compared with IPGTT. This was accompanied by higher peak insulin levels in sham burn and burn groups. In contrast, peak insulin levels of each burn with GLP-1 group were similar. 1) Both IPGTT and IGGTT demonstrated burn injury–induced insulin resistance and the efficacy of GLP-1 for reducing hyperglycemia after burn injury. 2) The observed differences in the plasma glucose and insulin levels between IGGTT and IPGTT suggest that endogenously produced GLP-1 during the IGGTT may play a role in ameliorating insulin resistance after burn injury.

From the *Burn Unit, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Shriners Hospital for Children®; and Shriners Hospital for Children®, Boston, Massachussets.

This study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (5P50GM021700, P30DK040561-13) and Shriners Hospitals for Children (Grants 84070 and 85700).

Address correspondence to Yong-Ming Yu, MD, PhD, Shriners Hospital for Children®, 51 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114.

© 2014 The American Burn Association