The current study aimed to check whether early vascular aging, measured as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), is related to kidney function, measured as creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), in middle-aged subjects with metabolic syndrome.
Participants were recruited from Lithuanian high-risk cohort (LitHiR). The cohort consists of middle-aged individuals with high cardiovascular risk but without overt cardiovascular disease. Participants underwent baseline and second visit hemodynamics measurement, including aortic mean arterial pressure (MAP), cfPWV, crPWV, carotid-intima media thickness measurement (CIMT) and biochemical analysis and all fulfilled NCEP/ATPIII criteria for metabolic syndrome diagnosis. First of all, we had determined correlations among hemodynamic measurement and eGFR together with albuminuria, expressed as UACR. Then we compared subjects who experienced significant eGFR decline with the remaining population and determining factors influencing this.
A total of 689 subject data were eligible for analysis. We observed relationship between cfPWV and MAP, crPWV, glucose, BMI, C-reactive protein, waist circumference except kidney function measured as eGFR at the baseline and at the second visit. eGFR was not associated with MAP or albuminuria. Baseline but not second visit UACR significantly positively correlated with cfPWV (r-spearman = 0.146, P = 0.003) and MAP (r-spearman = 0.142, P = 0.005). eGFR decline was mainly observed in subjects with higher baseline eGFR and was independently influenced by increase in cfPWV.
In middle-aged subjects with prevalent metabolic syndrome eGFR decline is related to aortic and not peripheral arterial stiffening. Better baseline kidney function could be possibly an effect of glomerular hyperfiltration, and it allows us to conclude that this phenomenon indicates early vascular damage and it should be addressed seriously in metabolic syndrome patients with normal kidney function.