HAEMOPHILIA AND OTHER CONGENITAL COAGULOPATHIESIX international curse of continuing formation in haemophilia and other congenital coagulopathies. The role of the Laboratory in coagulation disorders. Diagnosis of von Willebrand diseaseBatlle, Javiera; Pérez-Rodríguez, Almudenaa; Corrales, Ireneb,c; Borràs, Ninab,c; Pinto, Joana Costaa; López-Fernández, María Fernandaa; Vidal, Franciscob,c,d Author Information aServicio Hematología, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña, INIBIC, A Coruña bBanc de Sang iTeixits cMedicina transfusional, Valld’Hebron Research Institute, UniversitatAutònoma de Barcelona (VHIR-UAB) dCIBER de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Barcelona, Spain Correspondence to Javier Batlle, Av. Alfonso Molina 6, 3rd floor left, 15005 A Coruña, Spain E-mail: [email protected] Received 17 June, 2021 Accepted 5 October, 2021 Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: January 2022 - Volume 33 - Issue - p S12-S14 doi: 10.1097/MBC.0000000000001093 Buy Metrics Abstract Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most frequent inherited bleeding disorder caused by quantitative or qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF). This protein far from simplicity constitutes a very complex molecular model, remaining unravelled yet many aspects of it, even though the VWF gene (VWF) was cloned already in 1985 and the structure of VWF well defined. VWD diagnosis is difficult to achieve in a significant proportion of patients due to both disease heterogeneity and limitations in existing test processes. The cornerstone of diagnosis relies on interpretation of VWF test results, the presence of clinical manifestations of bleeding, especially mucocutaneous, and (in most cases) a positive family history. However, even with a significant bleeding history, a family history may not be positive due to factors of incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity that affect genetic changes. The laboratory diagnosis of VWD can be difficult, as the disease is heterogeneous and an array of assays is required to describe the phenotype. Basic classification of quantitative (type 1 and 3) and qualitative (type 2 variants) VWD requires determination of VWF antigenic (VWF:Ag) levels and assaying of VWF ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) activity. The latter is required for identifying and subtyping VWD, but the assay is poorly standardized. For that reason, novel VWF activity assays have been developed awaiting more extensive comparison data between different methodologies and requiring validation on larger patient series. The qualitative type 2 VWF deficiency can be further divided into four different subtypes (A, B, M and N) using specific assays that measure other activities or the size distribution of VWF multimers. However, frequently, it may be difficult to correctly classify the VWD phenotype, and genetic analysis is through mutation identification may provide a tool to clarify the disorder. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.