Review ArticlesCholinergic models of memory impairment in animals and man: scopolamine vs. biperidenBlokland, Arjan Author Information Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands Received 17 November 2021 Accepted as revised 26 January 2022 Correspondence to Arjan Blokland, PhD, Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands, E-mail: [email protected]ity.nl Behavioural Pharmacology: June 2022 - Volume 33 - Issue 4 - p 231-237 doi: 10.1097/FBP.0000000000000670 Buy Metrics Abstract Scopolamine has been used as a pharmacologic model for cognitive impairments in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The validity of this model seems to be limited because findings in animals do not readily translate to novel treatments in humans. Biperiden is also a cholinergic deficit model for cognitive impairments but specifically blocks muscarinic M1 receptors. The effects of scopolamine and biperiden (and pirenzepine) are compared in animal studies and related to findings in humans. It is concluded that the effects on cognitive functions are different for scopolamine and biperiden, and they should be considered as different cognitive deficit models. Scopolamine may model more advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease whereas biperiden may model the early deficits in declarative memory in aging and mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.