Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder classically associated with motor symptoms, but several nonmotor disturbances appear decades before the clinical diagnosis of the disease. A variety of hypotheses exist to explain the onset of PD, and neuroinflammation is one of the most investigated processes. In fact, strong evidence suggests that PD begins with an inflammatory process; currently, however, no anti-inflammatory therapy is clinically employed to alleviate the typical motor and the prodromal disturbances such as olfactory loss, cognitive impairments, depression and anxiety, sleep disturbances, and autonomic disorders. In fact, the classical dopaminergic therapies are not effective in alleviating these symptoms and there is no other specific therapy for these outcomes. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss novel potential pharmacological therapeutic strategies focusing on cannabinoids, caffeine, melatonin, and dietary compounds, which could act as adjuvants to regular PD therapy. These described chemicals have been extensively investigated as anti-inflammatory agents possibly promoting beneficial effects on nonmotor symptoms of PD. The investigation of the inflammatory process at different stages of PD progression should give us a better view of the therapeutic scenario and could improve our understanding of the mechanisms of this disease.
aNeurophysiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
bBiomedical Research Institute of Lleida (IRBLleida), University of Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain
cDepartment of Pharmacology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
Received 15 July 2019 Accepted as revised 18 September 2019
Correspondence to Marcelo M.S. Lima, PhD, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Fisiologia, Av. Francisco H. dos Santos s/n, 81.531 – 980, Caixa Postal: 19031, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, E-mail: email@example.comfirstname.lastname@example.org