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Mitochondrial metabolism

a common link between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration

Garabadu, Debapriya; Agrawal, Nidhi; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Sahil

doi: 10.1097/FBP.0000000000000505
Review Articles
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Neurodegenerative disorders have been considered as a growing health concern for decades. Increasing risk of neurodegenerative disorders creates a socioeconomic burden to both patients and care givers. Mitochondria are organelle that are involved in both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. There are few reports on the effect of mitochondrial metabolism on the progress of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Therefore, the present review summarizes the potential contribution of mitochondrial metabolic pathways in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. However, there its potential contribution in other neurodegenerative disorders is as yet unproven. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and pyruvate dehydrogenase can modulate mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism to attenuate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Further, it has been observed that the mitochondrial citric acid cycle can regulate the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Additional research should be undertaken to target tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes to minimize the progress of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. It has also been observed that the mitochondrial urea cycle can potentially contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting this pathway may control the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Furthermore, the mitochondrial malate-aspartate shuttle could be another target to control mitochondrial dysfunction-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in neurodegenerative disorders.

Division of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, India

Received 15 June 2019 Accepted as revised 6 September 2019

Correspondence to Debapriya Garabadu, PhD, Division of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura 281406, India, E-mail: debapriya.garabadu@gla.ac.in

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