To understand the effects of nutrition security and social determinants of health (SDOHs) on pressure injury (PI) progression through a scoping review and retrospective review of patients reporting to New England’s largest healthcare system.
Authors performed a scoping review for full-text, original articles reporting outcomes data specific to PIs in patients with socially informed nutrition insecurity. Investigators also performed a retrospective review of all patients from 2012 to 2021 to search for patients with PI documentation and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision Z codes related to the SDOHs.
A full-text review of 2,323 articles from 1965 to 2020 failed to locate any eligible studies. Investigators identified 1,044 patients who met the inclusion criteria; 50.7% were men, 74.3% were White, and 13.3% had evidence of detrimental SDOHs. The average PI duration was 12.13 days (interquartile range, 6 days). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that PI duration was longer in men, Black patients, and patients with evidence of detrimental SDOHs compared with their converse counterparts (P < .0001). The presence of detrimental SDOHs independently predicted an increased duration of disease by 13.07 days (95% CI, 8.99–17.15; t = 6.29, P < .0001).
A patient’s SDOH history has a significant and considerably stronger correlation with disease progression than predictors that are traditionally studied such as sex, race, or body mass index. These findings are novel, as highlighted by the absence of data uncovered in the literature. These data carry relevance for plastic surgeons wishing to prevent early recurrence following operative closure of PI-related wounds.