To review the literature to determine whether compression therapies and nutrition status influence venous ulcer healing.
A systematized bibliographic review was carried out by searching PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases for studies published between 2015 and 2020, using descriptors in Spanish and English.
After establishing the research question and applying the filters based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 114 articles were found. After screening, 11 articles were selected for the review: 8 were identified in the literature search, and 3 were added from the bibliographic references of other studies.
The authors developed a data extraction sheet that recorded the following variables: author, country, year of publication, level of evidence, research design, therapy type, initial ulcer size, active ulcer history, pain, healed wounds, wound reduction, therapy tolerance, nutrition assessment method, body mass index, and nutrition disorders.
Four studies analyzed the relationship between nutrition status and venous ulcer healing, finding that these patients tend to have a high body mass index; a deficit of nutrients such as vitamin A, D, or zinc; and an excess of lipids and carbohydrates. Seven studies compared different types of compression to determine which provided the best results, with two- and four-layer therapy being the most commonly used. Variables such as small wound size and recent onset were associated with better prognosis.
In terms of nutrition, the parameters analyzed are very limited. Although several studies show that two-layer therapy produces the greatest ulcer healing, there is not enough information to recommend one type of therapy over the other. Therefore, more clinical trials are needed to study broader nutrition parameters and compare the types of therapy under matched conditions to determine their influence on ulcer healing.