To conduct a systematic review to investigate risk factors, incidence, and preventive strategies for perioperative pressure injuries (PIs).
The authors reviewed four databases for literature published from January 2001 to December 2017. Selected articles included primary quantitative studies with prospective, descriptive, and longitudinal design or randomized controlled trials that evaluated risk factors, incidence, and preventive strategies for perioperative PIs. The studies included were evaluated for methodological quality using the Edwards Method Score. The authors used a standardized extraction form to extract inclusion and exclusion criteria, participant demographics, methodology, PI risk instrument and classification systems, type of surgery and anesthesia, PI risk factors, incidence, preventive strategies, and outcomes evaluation.
Of the 115 publications identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria. The risk assessment and PI classification instruments used differed in every study. Incidence of PI varied throughout the studies and was reduced by warming therapy and by a skin care intervention program.
Further studies are necessary to develop a standard risk assessment instrument and preventive strategies and to clarify some contradictions evident in the literature.