Jessica L. Sparks, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Chemical, Paper, and Biomedical Engineering, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Nicholas A. Vavalle, MS, is a doctoral candidate in biomedical engineering, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Krysten E. Kasting is a bioengineering undergraduate student, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Benjamin Long, MS, is an Instructor of Physical Therapy, Winston-Salem State University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Martin L. Tanaka, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Engineering and Technology, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina. Phillip A. Sanger, PhD, is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Karen Schnell, MSN, owns Blue Sky Health Concepts Consulting, Mebane, North Carolina. Teresa A. Conner-Kerr, PhD, is Dean of the College of Health Sciences, University of North Georgia, Dahlonega, Georgia.
Dr Sparks and Mr Vavalle have disclosed that Wake Forest University is a past recipient of grant funding from the US Department of Education (awarded to T.A.C.-K.).
Mr Long has disclosed that Winston-Salem State University is a past recipient of grant funding from the US Department of Education (awarded to T.A.C.-K.).
Dr Sanger has disclosed that his institution is a past recipient of grant funding from the Golden Leaf Foundation.
Ms Schnell has disclosed that she has previously received an honorarium from Winston-Salem State University, and is a past recipient of payment for writing or reviewing a manuscript from Winston-Salem State University.
Dr Kerr has disclosed that Winston-Salem State University is a past recipient of a Title III US Department of Education grant.
Ms Kasting and Dr Tanaka have disclosed that they have no financial relationships related to this article.
Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge Nick Ashworth, Isaac Crisp, Andrew York, and Erik Ellington for their assistance with data acquisition and graphical user interface development.
The authors also thank Kristen Pone, Christen Isley, and Peggy Furr, for their assistance with fiberglass casting and material acquisition. Funding for this research was provided by the US Department of Education (grant P031B085015-9 to T.A.C.-K.) and the Goldenleaf Fund (to P.A.S.).
Submitted July 5, 2013; accepted in revised form April 2, 2014.