The aim of this study was the set-up and experimental verification of a computational model capable of accurate flow prediction in a microaxial blood pump. The main focus was set on the validation of the developed model, because CFD predictions are not reliable without additional confirmation. It has been found that it is indispensable for proper validation to perfectly match the computational domain, including the up- and downstream periphery of the test environment. It has also been shown that flow visualization, in this case PTV, is generally suitable for detailed verification of even small devices like the micropump discussed.
The necessity of careful consideration regarding turbulence modeling and wall function solutions has also been discussed. The results demonstrate very good agreement between calculation and measurements. With the presented set-up, it has not only become possible to predict HQ characteristics quite accurately, but also to get detailed information about flow patterns and important numbers concerning efficiency. However, the total effort to ensure a reasonably accurate flow prediction by means of CFD is quite high. This set-up can and will now be used for detailed analysis involving flow optimization and basic approaches for the prediction of shear induced hemolysis.
1. Takami Y, Yamane S, Makinouchi K, Glueck J, Nose Y: Mechanical white blood cell damage in rotary blood pumps. Artif Organs 21: 138–142, 1997.
2. Andrade A, Biscegli J, Sousa JE, Ohashi Y, Nose Y: Flow visualization studies to improve the spiral pump design. Artif Organs 21: 680–685, 1997.
3. Nakamura S, Ding W, Smith WA, Golding LA: Numeric flow simulation for an innovative ventricular assist system secondary impeller. ASAIO J 45: 74–78, 1999.
4. Allaire PE, Wood HG, Awad RS, Olsen DB: Blood flow in a continuous flow ventricular assist device. Artif Organs 23: 769–773, 1999.
5. Wood HG, Anderson J, Allaire PE, McDaniel JC, Bearnson G: Numerical solution for blood flow in a centrifugal ventricular assist device. Int J Artif Organs 22: 827–836, 1999.
6. Ahmed S, Funakubo A, Sakuma I, Fukui Y, Dohi T: Experimental study on hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps: improvement of flow visualization method. Artif Organs 23: 542–546, 1999.
7. Araki K, Taenaka Y, Masuzawa T, et al: A flow visualization study of centrifugal blood pumps developed for long-term usage. Artif Organs 17: 307–312, 1993.
8. Ikeda T, Yamane T, Orita T, Tateishi T: A quantitative visualization study of flow in a scaled-up model of a centrifugal blood pump. Artif Organs 20: 132–138, 1996.
9. Miyazoe Y, Sawairi T, Ito K, et al: Computational fluid dynamic analyses to establish design process of centrifugal blood pumps. Artif Organs 22: 381–385, 1998.
10. Mizuguchi K, Damm G, Benkowsky R, et al: Development of an axial flow ventricular assist device: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Artif Organs 19: 653–659, 1995.
11. Mulder MM, Hansen AC, Mohammad SF, Olsen DB: In vitro investigation of the St. Jude Medical Isoflow centrifugal pump: Flow visualization and hemolysis studies. Artif Organs 21: 947–953, 1997.
12. Pinotti M, Rosa ES: Computational prediction of hemolysis in a centrifugal ventricular assist device. Artif Organs 19: 267–273, 1995.
13. Schima H, Muller MR, Papantonis D, et al: Minimization of hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps: influence of different geometries. Int J Artif Organs 16: 521–529, 1993.
14. Takiura K, Masuzawa T, Endo S, et al: Development of design methods of a centrifugal blood pump with in vitro tests, flow visualization, and computational fluid dynamics: results in hemolysis tests. Artif Organs 22: 393–398, 1998.
15. Thomas DC, Butler KC, Taylor LP, et al: Continued development of the Nimbus/University of Pittsburgh (UOP) axial flow left ventricular assist system. ASAIO J 43: M564–M566, 1997.
16. Yamane T, Asztalos B, Nishida M, et al: Flow visualization as a complementary tool to hemolysis testing in the development of centrifugal blood pumps. Artif Organs 22: 375–380, 1998.
17. Treichler J, Rosenow SE, Damm G, et al: A fluid dynamic analysis of a rotary blood pump for design improvement. Artif Organs 17: 797–808, 1993.
18. Antaki JF, Ghattas O, Burgreen GW, He B: Computational flow optimization of rotary blood pump components. Artif Organs 19: 608–615, 1995.
19. Kerrigan JP, Shaffer FD, Maher TR, Dennis TJ, Borovetz HS, Antaki JF: Fluorescent image tracking velocimetry of the Nimbus AxiPump. ASAIO J 39: M639–M643, 1993.
20. Kerrigan JP, Yamazaki K, Meyer RK, et al: High-resolution fluorescent particle-tracking flow visualization within an intraventricular axial flow left ventricular assist device. Artif Organs 20: 534–540, 1996.
21. Butler K, Thomas D, Antaki J, et al: Development of the Nimbus/Pittsburgh axial flow left ventricular assist system. Artif Organs 21: 602–610, 1997.
22. Butler KC, Maher TR, Borovetz HS, et al: Development of an axial flow blood pump LVAS. ASAIO J 38: M296–M300, 1992.
23. Wernicke JT, Meier D, Mizuguchi K, et al: A fluid dynamic analysis using flow visualization of the Baylor/NASA implantable axial flow blood pump for design improvement. Artif Organs 19: 161–177, 1995.
24. Bludszuweit C: Model for a general mechanical blood damage prediction. Artif Organs 19: 583–589, 1995.
25. Bludszuweit C: Three-dimensional numerical prediction of stress loading of blood particles in a centrifugal pump. Artif Organs 19: 590–596, 1995.
26. Konig CS, Clark C, Mokhtarzadeh-Dehghan MR: Investigation of unsteady flow in a model of a ventricular assist device by numerical modelling and comparison with experiment. Med Eng Phys 21: 53–64, 1999.
27. Woodard JC, Shaffer FD, Schaub RD, Lund LW, Borovetz HS: Optimal management of a ventricular assist system. Contribution of flow visualization studies. ASAIO J 38: M216–M219, 1992.
28. Sturm C, Li W, Woodard JC, Hwang NH: Fluid mechanics of left ventricular assist system outflow housings. ASAIO J 38: M225–M227, 1992.
29. Meyns B, Siess T, Nishimura Y, et al: Miniaturized implantable rotary blood pump in atrial-aortic position supports and unloads the failing heart. Cardiovasc Surg 6: 288–295, 1998.
30. Patel VC, Rodi W, Scheuerer G: Turbulence models for near-wall and low Reynolds number flows: A review. AIAA J 23: 1308–1319, 1985.
31. Siess T, Reul H, Rau G: Concept, realization, and first in vitro testing of an intraarterial microaxial blood pump. Artif Organs 19: 644–652, 1995.
32. Siess T, Reul H, Rau G: Hydraulic refinement of an intraarterial microaxial blood pump. Int J Artif Organs 18: 273–285, 1995.
33. Schlichting H: Grenzschichttheorie. Springer, Berlin, 1997.
34. Bluestein M, Mockros LF: Hemolytic effects of energy dissipation in flowing blood. Med Biol Eng 7: 1–16, 1969.