Preclinical Studies on Pulsatile Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Systematic Review : ASAIO Journal

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Preclinical Studies on Pulsatile Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Systematic Review

Kanagarajan, Dhayananth*,†,‡; Heinsar, Silver*,§,¶; Gandini, Lucia*∥; Suen, Jacky Y.; Dau, Van Thanh; Pauls, Jo*,†,‡; Fraser, John F.*,†,‡,§

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ASAIO Journal 69(5):p e167-e180, May 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000001922

Abstract

Refractory cardiogenic shock is increasingly being treated with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO), without definitive proof of improved clinical outcomes. Recently, pulsatile V-A ECMO has been developed to address some of the shortcomings of contemporary continuous-flow devices. To describe current pulsatile V-A ECMO studies, we conducted a systematic review of all preclinical studies in this area. We adhered to PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines for conducting systematic reviews. The literature search was performed using Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases. All preclinical experimental studies investigating pulsatile V-A ECMO and published before July 26, 2022 were included. We extracted data relating to the 1) ECMO circuits, 2) pulsatile blood flow conditions, 3) key study outcomes, and 4) other relevant experimental conditions. Forty-five manuscripts of pulsatile V-A ECMO were included in this review detailing 26 in vitro, two in silico, and 17 in vivo experiments. Hemodynamic energy production was the most investigated outcome (69%). A total of 53% of studies used a diagonal pump to achieve pulsatile flow. Most literature on pulsatile V-A ECMO focuses on hemodynamic energy production, whereas its potential clinical effects such as favorable heart and brain function, end-organ microcirculation, and decreased inflammation remain inconclusive and limited.

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