Right ventricular injury (RVI) in the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is well recognized as an important determinant risk factor of mortality. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is part of the algorithm for the management of patients with severe ARDS and severely impaired gas exchange. Although VV-ECMO may theoretically protect the RV it is uncertain to what degree RVI persists despite VV-ECMO support, and whether it continues to influence mortality after ECMO initiation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of RVI on mortality in this context, testing the hypothesis that RVI worsens mortality in this cohort. We performed a systematic search that identified seven studies commenting on RVI and mortality in patients with ARDS receiving VV-ECMO. The presence of RVI was associated with greater mortality overall (odds ratios [OR]: 2.72; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.52–4.85; p < 0.00) and across three subgroups (RV dilatational measures: OR: 3.51; 95% CI: 1.51–8.14; p < 0.01, RV functional measures: OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 0.99–3.42; p = 0.05, RV measurements post-ECMO initiation: OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.01–3.72; p < 0.05). Prospective studies are needed to investigate the causal relationship between RVI and mortality in this patient group and the best management strategies to reduce mortality.