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Natural Compounds for Skin Tissue Engineering by Electrospinning of Nylon-Beta Vulgaris

Ranjbarvan, Parviz*†; Mahmoudifard, Matin*‡; Kehtari, Mousa; Babaie, Ali*; Hamedi, Shokoh; Mirzaei, Samaneh*; Soleimani, Masoud‖**; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar#**

doi: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000611
Tissue Engineering/ Biomaterials: PDF Only

Natural compounds containing polysaccharide ingredients have been employed as candidates for treatment of skin tissue. Herein, for the first time, electrospinning setup was proposed to fabricate an efficient composite nanofibrous structure of Beta vulgaris (obtained from Beet [Chenopodiaceae or Amaranthaceae]) belonged to polysaccharides and an elastic polymer named nylon 66 for skin tissue engineering. Both prepared scaffolds including noncomposite and composite types were studied by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR spectroscopy, mechanical assay, and contact angle. Scanning electron microscope examinations have approved the uniform and homogeneous structure of composite nanofibers containing nylon polymer and B. vulgaris extract. FTIR spectroscopy was endorsed the presence of B. vulgaris extract within the interwoven mat of nanofibers. Also, measurement of mechanical property with cell-laden composite scaffolds approved the desirable similarity between corresponding scaffold and native skin tissue. To our surprise, it was found that compared with nylon nanofibrous scaffold, composite sample containing B. vulgaris extract has lower contact angle indicating a higher hydrophilic surface. After cell seeding process of keratinocyte cells on composite and noncomposite scaffolds, SEM and MTT assays approved higher number of attached cells onto the corresponding composite electrospun membrane. Epidermal gene expression such as involucrin, cytokeratin 10, and cytokeratin 14 was observed through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry results (cytokeratin 10 and loricrin) approved that the original property of keratinocytes was strongly preserved using composite scaffold. The corresponding study tries to introduce a new type of natural-based scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering that exhibits an elastic behavior similar to native skin tissue.

From the *Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, Iran; Department of tissue engineering, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran; §School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; Department of Persian Pharmacy, School of Persian and Complementary Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; and #School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Submitted for consideration January 2017; accepted for publication in revised form May 2017.

This work was benefitted from a grant of Stem Cell Technology Research Center.

Disclosure: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text, and links to the digital files are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (

Correspondence: Simzar Hosseinzadeh, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email:

Copyright © 2018 by the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs