From the *Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Cardiovascular Institute, Tokyo, Japan
†Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Cardiovascular Institute, Tokyo, Japan
‡Department of Cardiac Surgery,The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
§Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Cardiovascular Institute, Tokyo, Japan
¶Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan
‖Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan
#First Department of Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
**Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan
††Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Okayama, Japan
‡‡Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
§§Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan
‖‖Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
¶¶Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Fujita Health University Okazaki Medical Center, Aichi, Japan
##Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan
***Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
†††Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ohta General Hospital Foundation, Ohta-Nishinouchi Hospital, Fukushima, Japan
‡‡‡Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, St Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
§§§Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan
‖‖‖Center of Minimally Invasive AFIB Surgery, New-heart Watanabe International Institute, Tokya, Japan
¶¶¶First Department of Surgery, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
###Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan
****Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hanyu General Hospital, Saitama, Japan
Submitted for consideration June 2022; accepted for publication in revised form November 2022.
Disclosure: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
This study was supported by the Japanese Society For Arrhythmia Surgery (coordinator: Midori Sakuraoka) and based on a preliminary survey performed with the support of 12 other institutions belonging to the Japanese Society for Arrhythmia Surgery, as described in Supplemental Material S3 (https://links.lww.com/ASAIO/A943).
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text, and links to the digital files are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.asaiojournal.com).
Correspondence: Takashi Kunihara, Department of Cardiac Surgery, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-19-18 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8471, Japan. Email: [email protected].