The authors have previously documented that appropriate chemical and pharmacologic modification of the hemoglobin molecule are required to attenuate certain pathophysiologic reactions of the reticuloendothelium. The current study further investigates the molecular responses of human coronary artery endothelial cells to a high concentration (0.4 mmol) of 1) unmodified bovine hemoglobin; and 2) an improved blood substitute that comprises hemoglobin cross-linked intramolecularly with o-adenosine triphosphate and intermolecularly with o-adenosine, and conjugated with reduced glutathione. In this study, the scavenging effect of hemoglobins toward nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated by the measurement of nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate (NO3−) formation. The pro-oxidant effect of hemoglobin on endothelial cells was examined by the measurement of intracellular reduced glutathione, and by monitoring the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and 8-iso prostaglandin F2α, a novel potent vasoconstrictor, which is produced by a noncyclooxygenase mechanism involving free radical catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. The inflammatory reactions of endothelial cells were evaluated by the expression of the adhesion molecule, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and the activation of nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor κB. In additional, endothelial cell responses were investigated by analysis of intracellular ionized calcium concentrations. Results indicate that unmodified hemoglobin in a concentration of 0.4 mmol/L can aggravate endothelial cell oxidative and inflammatory responses. This hemoglobin produced a significant (p<0.01) depletion of reduced glutathione, acceleration of lipid peroxidation, and a greater influx of Ca2+. The formation of 8-iso prostaglandin F2α increased compared with the control cells (p<0.01). Unmodified hemoglobin was found to be a potent scavenger of NO, great activator of nuclear factor κB, and a stimulator of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. Contrarily, the improved blood substitute did not appear to induce oxidative stress nor to increase the intracellular Ca2+. The concentration of 8-iso prostaglandin F2α was similar to that in the control cells, whereas the formation of NO2−/NO3− was much lower (p<0.05) than in the unmodified hemoglobin group.
The effect of an improved blood substitute can be linked with the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties of adenosine, which is used as a cross-linker and surface modifier, and the type of the chemical modification procedure that lowers hemoglobin pro-oxidant potential.
Copyright © 1998 by the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs