A less invasive and non thrombogenic flow estimation of an implantable centrifugal blood pump (ICBP) has been developed, which was derived from electric power consumption, the rotating speed of a motor, and blood viscosity presumed by hematocrit and body temperature. The power consumption and the rotating speed of the motor were measured by a wattmeter every 0.2 sec. Accuracy and stability of the estimated flow (EF) were investigated during in vitro and in vivo experiments. The EF was compared with a measured flow rate (MF) monitored by an electromagnetic flowmeter. During in vitro experiments, the EF and MF were measured at 79 operating points. The ICBP was driven in a closed mock loop filled with goat blood with hematocrit values of 21.5, 28, 34, and 42%. During in vivo experiments, the ICBP was implanted in the chest cavity of a goat and driven for 40 days
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