The early changes in circulating blood volume (CBV) and volume regulating humoral factors after implantation of an electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EH-TAH) were investigated in a calf and compared with results in a sham operated control calf. CBV was measured by the dye dilution method using indocyanine green. CBV and humoral factors were periodically investigated. In the EH-TAH implanted calf, the cardiac output was estimated at 6–7 L/min (94–109 ml/kg/min), and the aortic pressure and aerobic metabolic condition were favorable. Nevertheless, the CBV was increased to 132 and 168% of the pre-operative value (range in the control calf, 83–103%) on post operative days 4 and 8, respectively. The atrial natriuretic peptide level on days 2, 5, and 7 was 23, 170, and 240 (in the control calf, 19–61) pg/ml, respectively, and the anti-diuretic hormone level was 7.3, 2.0, and 1.3 (0.5–1.3) pg/ml, respectively. The plasma renin activity was 3.2, 3.7, and 3.1 (0.5–0.3) ng/ml/hr, respectively. The angiotensin-I and angiotensin-II levels were also increased in the EH-TAH implanted calf. It is concluded that significant water retention occurs even at sufficient cardiac output early after EH-TAH implantation. The changes in humoral factors are suggested to arise secondary to the increased CBV or other unknown factors.
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