Mesonephric carcinoma is a rare gynecologic neoplasm commonly mistaken for clear cell carcinoma, because of their overlapping morphologic features. Both tumors are negative for estrogen receptor and p16, magnifying this diagnostic dilemma. Recently, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta (HNF-1β), a marker for clear cell carcinoma, has also been shown to be positive in mesonephric carcinomas. Other more recent markers for clear cell carcinoma, however, such as Napsin-A and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), have not yet been studied in mesonephric carcinomas. Here we examine HNF-1β, AMACR, and Napsin-A immunohistochemistry in 18 mesonephric and 55 endometrial/cervical clear cell carcinomas. HNF-1β was considered positive if nuclear staining was present in ≥70% of cells and at least moderate intensity; for Napsin-A and AMACR, any cytoplasmic staining was considered positive (≥1%). H-scores were determined by multiplying the intensity score by proportion score. HNF-1β was positive in a substantial portion of mesonephric carcinomas (9/18, 50%; H-score 98) and clear cell carcinomas (34/55, 62%; H-score 163) and did not distinguish between the 2 entities (specificity, 50%; P-value of H-score=0.08). Napsin-A and AMACR expression was significantly higher in clear cell [43/55 (78%) and 41/55 (75%), respectively] than mesonephric carcinomas [4/18 (22%) and 4/18 (22%) respectively], and helpful in this differential (specificity: 78% and 78%; P<0.05 for both). When Napsin-A and AMACR staining were seen in mesonephric carcinomas, staining was focal (≤5%), whereas staining in clear cell carcinomas was patchy/diffuse. In summary, Napsin-A and AMACR are helpful in distinguishing mesonephric carcinomas from clear cell carcinomas of the female genital tract, but HNF-1β is not.