Research ArticlesClinical Significance of CBS and CCL21 in Gallbladder Adenocarcinomas and Squamous Cell/Adenosquamous CarcinomasLi, Daiqiang MD*; Yang, Zhulin MD, PhD†; Liu, Ziru MD†; Zou, Qiong MD‡; Yuan, Yuan MD‡Author Information Departments of *Pathology †General Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital ‡Department of Pathology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Zhulin Yang, MD, PhD, Department of General Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: February 2020 - Volume 28 - Issue 2 - p 103-110 doi: 10.1097/PAI.0000000000000705 Buy Metrics Abstract Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare disease with high mortality. However, no biomarkers for the carcinogenesis, progression, prognosis, and early diagnosis are clinically available. This study investigated the expressions of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) protein and their clinical and pathologic significances in gallbladder squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) and adenocarcinomas (AC). CBS and chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) expression was measured using immunohistochemistry in 69 SC/ASCs and 146 ACs. A significantly high percentage of patients with an age above 45 years, lymph node metastasis, and invasion was observed in the SCs/ASCs compared with ACs (P<0.05). Both AC and SC/ASC patients with positive CBS and CCL21 expression exhibited a high tumor-lymph node-metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis, and invasion compared with patients with negative CBS and CCL21 expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). SC/ASC patients with positive CBS expression was prone to have a larger tumor size than those with negative expression (P<0.05). Positive CBS and CCL21 expression correlated with poor differentiation and larger tumor size in AC patients. Positive CBS and CCL21 are closely associated with a decreased overall survival in SC/ASC and AC patients (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and were independent factors for a poor-prognosis. Both CBS and CCL21 showed a good overall diagnostic performance for SC/ASC (AUC=0.742 and AUC=0.764, respectively) and AC (AUC=0.734 and AUC=0.718, respectively). In conclusion, positive CBS and CCL21 expression are closely associated with the clinical severity and poor prognosis in GBC, and can be a marker for the diagnosis of AC and SC/ASC type of GBC. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.