Research ArticlesInterleukin (IL)-1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 Appearance in Congenital Intra-Abdominal Adhesions in Children Under 1 Year of AgeJunga, Anna MD*; Pilmane, Māra PhD, MD*; Ābola, Zane PhD, MD†; Volrāts, Olafs PhD, MD†Author Information *Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology †Department of Children Surgery, Rīga Stradiņš University, Riga, Latvia The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Anna Junga, MD, Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Rīga Stradiņš University, Kronvalda bulv 9, Riga LV-1010, Latvia (e-mail: [email protected]). Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: October 2018 - Volume 26 - Issue 9 - p 664-669 doi: 10.1097/PAI.0000000000000498 Buy Metrics Abstract Several cytokines have been studied for their potential role in adhesion formation. Regulatory role between the cytokine pathways has not yet to be defined. This study was designed to investigate the relation between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in congenital intra-abdominal adhesions. Tissue samples used for research were obtained from abdominal surgery due to obstructive gut malrotation and several additional pathologies (rectal atresia without perforation, omphalocele). All tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemistry for interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, and IL-10. The number of immunoreactive structures was graded semiquantitatively. Occasionally to moderate number of IL-1, IL-4, and IL-8 positive inflammatory cells and fibroblasts were observed in tissue. Few to moderate connective tissue cells contained IL-6, but moderate to numerous—IL-7 and IL-10. Statistically significant correlation was found between IL-7 and IL-1 (rs=0.471, P=0.001), IL-4 (rs=0.491, P<0.001), IL-8 (rs=0.440, P=0.001), IL-10 (rs=0.433, P=0.002). The relatively common finding of IL-6 in adhesions points out the relevance of lymphocyte balance regulation of an ongoing inflammation and regenerative processes. The coherence between the inflammation mediator IL-7 and other proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines suggests about activation of macrophages and chronic inflammatory aggregate formation. The essential IL-10 and less distinct IL-1 findings in the adhesion material points out strong local defense reactions. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.