EGFR mutations were previously found in patients suffering from peritoneal mesothelioma but have not yet been described in pleural mesothelioma. The aim of the present study was the identification of EGFR mutations in patients suffering from pleural mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma tissue from 31 patients was used to analyze possible mutations in the EGFR gene comprising the exons 18-21 with the codons 719, 768, 790, 858+861, 731+734, 785, 797+801, 831, and 868 with pyrosequencing. The results indicate that 31 pleural mesothelioma patients show a wild-type EGFR gene when analyzing the codons D19, 768, 790, 858+861, 731+734, 785, 797+801, 831, and 868, whereas 2 patients have a mutation in the EGFR gene in codon 719. Sanger sequencing of the EGFR codon 785 was used for the determination of a polymorphism in the sequencing of tumor-free patients and pleural mesothelioma patients with a distribution of a wild-type homozygous sequence with guanine, a wild-type heterozygous sequence having guanine and adenine, a wild-type homozygous sequence with adenine, and a wild-type heterozygous sequence with adenine and guanine. Next, the identification of less EGFR mutations in the EGFR gene of the pleural mesothelioma an up to this time unknown polymorphism in the EGFR gene was identified which could be wrongly interpreted as a mutation.