Bleomycin, a cytotoxic and antitumour drug, is safe and effective in the management of vascular anomalies prevalent in the head and neck region. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of intralesional bleomycin injection in vascular malformations (VMs), especially venous and lymphatic malformations present extracranially on the face, lips and intraorally.
Subjects and Methods:
This prospective clinical study was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Srinagar. The study included 30 patients with low-flow VMs (LFVMs) wherein the effectiveness of intralesional bleomycin sclerotherapy was evaluated. The recorded data was compiled and continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables were summarised as frequency and percentages.
Complete resolution (cure) was observed in 11 patients (36.66%), marked improvement in 17 patients (56.66%) and mild improvement in two patients (6.66%). Local complications were superficial ulcerations in 14 patients (46.66%) and hyperpigmentation in one patient (3.33%). Systemic complications in the form of flu like symptoms, nausea or vomiting were not reported in any of the above-mentioned patients. Signs of pulmonary fibrosis and/or hypertension were also not reported in any of the above cases.
Intralesional bleomycin injection is a potent and safe therapeutic alternative for the treatment of haemangiomas and LFVMs. Such patients can be managed on an outpatient basis without the need of any extensive surgery, expensive armamentarium and with only minor complications.