Over the past six decades, more and more evidence has emerged that a vast majority of variants in drug response are determined by genetics, age, nutritional status, health status, environmental expression, epigenetic factors, and complementary therapies. This exploration of the dynamic drug response, which began in the early 1950s, led to the birth of a new scientific discipline from genetic engineering, biochemistry, and pharmacology known as pharmacogenomics.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of how human inheritance affects the body's response to drugs. The term comes from the terms pharmacology and genomics and is, therefore, a combination of medical and genetic medicine. The most common mutations in the human genome are called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). About 11 million SNPs are estimated to exist in humans, with an average of 1,300 basic pairs. Some such SNPs influence drug reactions. Recognizing these SNPs in an individual and applying them to the benefit of increasing the efficacy and safety of drugs, including the determination of drug dosage, are some of the applications of Pharmacogenomics.
Personalized Medicine (PM) is the administration of individualized drugs, according to information based on pharmacogenomics, including cell suspension. PM can prove to be a breakthrough in clinical practice as it determines the correct treatment options by estimating the dosage and efficacy of drugs, thereby avoiding adverse drug reactions to patients and also reducing the time and cost of clinical trials. This has especially shown promising results in the management of cancer as it combines the determination of genetic abnormalities and specifically targeted drug delivery systems.
Recently, phytochemicals such as curcumin, naringin, etc., have shown promising results for potentially malignant disorders (PMDs). It has been found that various natural compounds show better binding to causative SNP than current chemotherapeutic drugs. Literature searches have shown the seriousness of the studies, examining genetic mutations such as SNPs in the population and using drug suspensions to create the appropriate formulas for treatment. Studies can be conducted to find SNPs in patients with oral PMDs to establish a data bank and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of natural chemicals, such as Curcumin, Naringin, Anonaine, etc., in the treatment of PMDs. Different natural compounds can be selected for different disease targets.
Chemical inclusion is another area gaining popularity that involves understanding the interaction of biomolecular compounds for logical drug design and discovery. It also aids in mechanical studies by placing a molecule (ligand) in a specific binding area of a particular DNA/protein (receptor) region, especially in a way that does not allow for the stable process of efficient and elaborate precision. Effective use of cellular insertion requires a data bank search target with the appropriate Protein Data Bank (PDB) format and ligand formatting as a PDB file. Ligands can be converted in PDB format using various software such as Discovery studio, etc. These tools provide the organization of ligands based on their ability to interact with a given protein/DNA. Cellular pathology studies open the way to customized drugs.
BENEFITS OF PHARMACOGENOMICS
- Predicting powerful drugs, and responses to specific drugs before dosing
- Better efficacy of the drug
- Additional correct strategies for determining applicable drug dosages
- Improving drug discovery and approval methods.
- More effective and safer medicines minimize side effects
- Improve medication compliance and increase patient confidence in disease management
- Using genetics to optimize drug therapy.
Pharmacogenomics is emerging as a promising tool in drug delivery systems, especially in cancer therapies. Given the higher patient-to-patient variability in cancers, there has been a pressing need for precision in the dosage and efficacy of drugs, thereby improving the overall response and survival rates. Pharmacogenomics helps by recognizing the genetic abnormalities of the neoplasm, such as changes in the DNA code that drives its uncontrolled growth, thereby making it easier to devise pre-use treatment options. In dentistry, these targeted therapies are gaining importance in the effective use of natural drugs like Curcumin, etc., in the treatment of PMDs.
1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, et al The protein data bank Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:235–42
2. Oates JT, Lopez D. Pharmacogenetics: An important part of drug development with a focus on its application Int J Biomed Investig. 2018;1:111