Case ReportsImmune checkpoint inhibitor in a case with primary urethral adenocarcinoma with lung metastasisMa, Jia,*; Liang, Xiupingb,*; Miao, Jidongc; Li, Jiaweic; Wang, Xina Author Information Departments of aMedical Oncology bRheumatology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR China cDepartment of Medical Oncology, Zigong Fourth People’s Hospital, Zigong, PR China Received 7 February 2022 Revised form accepted 28 June 2022 *Ji Ma and Xiuping Liang contributed equally to the writing of this article. Correspondence to Xin Wang, PhD, Department of Medical Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, 610041, PR China, Tel: +862885423609; e-mail: [email protected] Anti-Cancer Drugs: November 2022 - Volume 33 - Issue 10 - p 1163-1166 doi: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000001351 Buy Metrics Abstract Primary urethral adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, and the clinical experience in optimizing the management is limited. The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors for these patients is not clear. Here, we describe a 52-year-old patient with primary urethral adenocarcinoma accompanied by inguinal lymph nodes and lung metastasis with progressive disease after radiotherapy and multiline chemotherapy. The expression of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) was positive. Hence, this patient was treated with tislelizumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor. The disease is well controlled and the overall survival time is 5 years. Moreover, the patient tolerated the treatment well. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which immunotherapy was used for primary urethral adenocarcinoma. The immune checkpoint inhibitors may be a novel option for the treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.