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Liposomal cisplatin: a new cisplatin formulation

Stathopoulos, George P.

doi: 10.1097/CAD.0b013e32833d9adf
REVIEW ARTICLES
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Over the last three decades, cisplatin has been one of the most effective cytotoxic agents, but its administration has been hindered by its nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and myelo toxicity. Recently, liposomal cisplatin, lipoplatin, has been formulated and tested thoroughly in preclinical (in vitro) and phase I, II and III trials, as documented in the literature. Experiments in animals showed that lipoplatin is less toxic than cisplatin and that it produces tumour reduction. The histological examination of treated tumours from mouse xenografts was consistent with apoptosis in the tumour cells in a mechanism similar to that of cisplatin. Lipoplatin infusion in patients and measurements of platinum levels in tumour specimens showed 10–50 times higher levels in tumours and metastases than in the adjacent normal specimens. A phase I–II study using a combination of lipoplatin and gemcitabine in pretreated patients (with disease progression or stable disease) with advanced pancreatic cancer was conducted. No nephrotoxicity was observed. With lipoplatin monotherapy the dose-limiting toxicity was determined to be 350 mg/m2 and the maximum tolerated dose 300 mg/m2; when used in combination with paclitaxel the dose-limiting toxicity for lipoplatin was 250 mg/m2 and for paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, and the maximum tolerated dose was 200 and 175 mg/m2, respectively. In two phase II randomized studies comparing the lipoplatin combination versus the cisplatin combination, it was found that the former was statistically significantly less toxic than the latter, whereas the response rate and survival were similar. Up to now, the data on lipoplatin treatment in malignant tumours are quite impressive, because of the negligible toxicity and because it is equal if not superior to cisplatin with regard to response rate. This review aims to chronologically document publications relevant to liposomal cisplatin to date.

Department of First Oncology, Errikos Dunant Hospital, Athens, Greece

Correspondence to George P. Stathopoulos, MD, Semitelou 2A, 115 28 Athens, Greece

Tel: +30 210 7752600; fax: +30 210 7251736;

e-mail: dr-gps@ath.forthnet.gr

Received 16 May 2010 Revised form accepted 26 June 2010

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.