The gross anatomy of varicose veins is one of the most important factors in the study of varicosity. Because of wide variations in the extent of involvement and degree of severity of varicose veins, it is difficult to obtain live and intact specimens of varicose veins. With good illumination and magnified monitor viewing, the varicositic main channel, its tributaries, and the incompetent perforating veins can be dissected and visualized clearly during endoscopic surgery. Thus, the whole range of varicosities can be observed directly in situ. Characteristic features of the varicosities of 350 limbs have been recorded by video and photographs for study and classification. These features include: 1) poor contractility of varicose veins; 2) dilated and tortuous changes of varicose veins; 3) saccular or lateral bulging deformities of vein walls, or both; 4) uniformly dilated and tortuous deformities of a long vein; 5) varicositic changes of the accessory vein; 6) anatomic abnormalities of varicose veins, such as supernumerary tributaries, varicositic clusters, and a crowded relationship among the long saphenous vein, perforating vein and tributaries; 7) various conditions of the perforating veins; and 8) the close relationship among the long saphenous vein, perforating veins, and the saphenous nerve. These data provide valuable information for the study and management of primary varicose veins.
Varicosities of 350 lower extremities were photographed and video-recorded using endoscopic surgery. Findings included, among others, poor contractility, dilatation and tortuosity, saccular and bulging deformities, and close proximity to the saphenous nerve.
From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Received Mar 12, 2002.
Accepted for publication Apr 29, 2002.
Address correspondence reprint requests to Sin-Daw Lin, MD, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.
Lin SD, Chang KP, Yang YL, Lee SS, Lin TM, Tsai CC, Lai CS. Gross anatomy of primary varicose veins observed in endoscopic surgery.