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A Design for the Dual Skin Paddle Circumflex Scapular Artery Perforator Flap for the Reconstruction of Complex Soft-Tissue Defects in Children

Anatomical Study and Clinical Applications

Qing, Liming MD, PhD*; Wu, Panfeng MD, PhD*; Zhou, Zhengbing MD, PhD*; Yu, Fang MD, PhD*; Tang, Maolin MD, PhD; Tang, Juyu MD, PhD*

doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001814
Microsurgery: PDF Only

Background The main drawbacks of the use of the circumflex scapular artery perforator (CSAP) flap for complex soft-tissue defect repair are the limitation of skin paddle size, which can be harvested to allow precise wound coverage and primary closure of the donor site. We developed a variant of the dual skin paddle CSAP flap to extend its applications and minimize donor-site morbidity when reconstructing complex soft-tissue defects in children.

Methods A detailed anatomical investigation of circumflex scapular artery (CSA) branches was conducted using a standardized injection of lead oxide in 25 fresh cadavers. Dual skin paddle CSAP flaps were harvested for the reconstruction of complex defects in the extremities in 16 children. Three types of dual skin paddle CSAP flap were used in this study: transverse chain-shaped, oblique chain-shaped, and trefoil-shaped flaps.

Results Three CSA branching patterns with superior branch diameters were observed: 34% of CSAs were of the transverse branch dominant type, 54% were of the descending branch dominant type, and 12% were of the codominant type. Sixteen dual skin paddle CSAP flaps were elevated successfully; they were of the transverse chain-shaped type in 2 cases, the oblique chain-shaped type in 9 cases, and the trefoil-shaped type in 5 cases. All flaps survived postoperatively. Primary closure of the donor site was achieved in all cases.

Conclusions The CSA system is an appropriate source for harvesting dual skin paddle CASP flap. Use of this flap for the reconstruction of complex soft-tissue defects in the extremities in children is an alternative approach that reduces morbidity and improves the cosmetic outcome at the donor site.

From the *Department of Microsurgery and Hand Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha; and

Department of Anatomy, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Received October 20, 2018, and accepted for publication, after revision November 26, 2018.

Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: This publication was funded in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81472104). The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reprints: Juyu Tang, MD, PhD, Department of Microsurgery and Hand Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, People's Republic of China. E-mail:

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