Symptomatic macromastia causes negative physical and psychosocial effects, which support the need for early intervention, even in the adolescent population (Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;130:785–789). Reduction mammaplasty is a proven treatment that reliably addresses symptoms from macromastia. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program–Pediatric is the leading nationally validated, risk-adjusted, outcomes-based program to measure and improve the quality of surgical care (Pediatrics 2012;130:e339–e346). In adults, obesity is associated with increased early postoperative complications after mammaplasty (Pediatrics 2017;140(5)). We hypothesized that obesity would increase the incidence of postoperative complications in pediatric patients undergoing reduction mammaplasty.
The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program–Pediatric database was queried for female patients 18 years or younger who underwent reduction mammaplasty from January 2012 to December 2017 using Current Procedural Terminology code 19318. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were abstracted from the database. A composite postoperative adverse events variable was created from a list of 21 individual adverse events. Patients were stratified by presence of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) on univariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with any postoperative adverse events.
A total of 542 female patients underwent reduction mammaplasty, with 48% of the cohort being obese. Patients were similar in age (median, 17 years) and comorbidities between obese and nonobese groups. Obese patients were more likely to be African American, have higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and endure longer operations. Composite adverse event rates were significantly higher in the obese group (7% vs 2%, P = 0.013). Individual adverse events were similar between groups, with the exception of 30-day readmissions, which was higher in the obese group (3% vs 1%, P = 0.04). On multivariable logistic regression, obesity increased the odds of having a postoperative adverse event by 3-fold after adjusting for operative duration.
Obesity was significantly associated with greater postoperative adverse events in obese adolescent females after reduction mammaplasty compared with their nonobese counterparts. Although recorded rates of adverse events after reduction mammaplasty were low, preoperative weight loss programs may further improve outcomes for obese pediatric populations undergoing reduction mammaplasty.