Autologous fat grafting has been widely applied in cosmetic breast augmentation in recent years. However, nontuberculous mycobacteria infection, as one of the multiple complications described in the literature, has been less well discussed.
The aims of the study were to report 5 cases of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection after autologous fat injection for the cosmetic breast augmentation and to explore its causes.
In this noncomparative, retrospective, and interventional case series, we identified 5 patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. All patients had a history of previous autologous fat injection into the breast for cosmetic purpose, performed in different plastic facilities.
Five patients developed nontuberculous mycobacteria infection after autologous fat injection for cosmetic breast augmentation and came to our group for treatment. Grafted fat removal through multiple debridement and long-term intravenous and oral antibiotic therapy were required in our cases.
The number of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection after autologous fat injection into the breast is increasing. Surgeons should be aware of the complication, which rarely manifests during the procedure itself. Strict aseptic principles should be obeyed throughout the surgery.