Transplantation Surgery and ResearchEvaluation of Auricular Cartilage Reconstruction Using a 3-Dimensional Printed Biodegradable Scaffold and Autogenous Minced Auricular CartilageMin, Sun-Hong DVM, MSa; Kim, Jun-Hyung DVM, MSa; Lee, Mun-Ik DVM, MSa; Kwak, Ho-Hyun DVM, PhDa; Woo, Heung-Myong DVM, PhDa; Shim, Jin-Hyung PhDb,c; Choi, Da-Mi MSc; Lee, Jeong-Seok MSc; Jeong, Jae-Yong MD, PhDd; Kang, Byung-Jae DVM, PhDeAuthor Information From the aCollege of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University cResearch Institute, T&R Biofab Co Ltd, Siheung-Si, Gyeonggi-Do dTHE PLUS Plastic Surgery Clinic, Gangnam-gu eDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. Received November 6, 2019, and accepted for publication, after revision January 10, 2020. Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared. This work was supported by the Demonstration Program of Industrial Technology for 3D Printing Medical Device (P0008811) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy. Reprints: Byung-Jae Kang, DVM, PhD, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Annals of Plastic Surgery: August 2020 - Volume 85 - Issue 2 - p 185-193 doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000002313 Buy Metrics Abstract Auricular cartilage reconstruction represents one of the greatest challenges for otolaryngology–head and neck surgery. The native structure and composition of the auricular cartilage can be achieved by combining a suitable chondrogenic cell source with an appropriate scaffold. In reconstructive surgery for cartilage tissue, autogenous cartilage is considered to be the best chondrogenic cell source. Polycaprolactone is mainly used as a tissue-engineered scaffold owing to its mechanical properties, miscibility with a large range of other polymers, and biodegradability. In this study, scaffolds with or without autogenous minced auricular cartilage were implanted bilaterally in rabbits for auricular regeneration. Six weeks (n = 4) and 16 weeks (n = 4) after implantation, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and histology were used to assess the regeneration of the auricular cartilage. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the messenger RNA expression of aggrecan, collagen I, and collagen II was higher in scaffolds with 50% minced cartilage than the scaffold-only groups or scaffolds with 30% minced cartilage (P < 0.05). Furthermore, histological analysis demonstrated significantly superior cartilage regeneration in scaffolds with the minced cartilage group compared with the scaffold-only and control groups (P < 0.05). Autogenous cartilage can be easily obtained and loaded onto a scaffold to promote the presence of chondrogenic cells, allowing for an improvement of the reconstruction of auricular cartilage. Here, the regeneration of auricular cartilage was also successful in the 50% minced cartilage group. The results presented in this study could have clinical implications, as they demonstrate the potential of a 1-stage process for auricular reconstruction. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.