Peripheral Nerve Surgery and ResearchThe Surgical Management of Nerve Gaps Present and FutureBassilios Habre, Samer MD*; Bond, Grant MD†; Jing, Xi Lin MD*; Kostopoulos, Epameinondas MD‡; Wallace, Robert D. MD*; Konofaos, Petros MD, PhD*Author Information From the Departments of *Plastic Surgery, †General Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN; and ‡Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Received June 22, 2017, and accepted for publication, after revision August 20, 2017. Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared. Reprints: Petros Konofaos, MD, PhD, Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, 1068 Cresthaven Rd, Suite 500, Memphis, TN 38119. E-mail: [email protected]. Annals of Plastic Surgery: March 2018 - Volume 80 - Issue 3 - p 252-261 doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001252 Buy Metrics Abstract Peripheral nerve injuries can result in significant morbidity, including motor and/or sensory loss, which can affect significantly the life of the patient. Nowadays, the gold standard for the treatment of nerve section is end-to-end neurorrhaphy. Unfortunately, in some cases, there is segmental loss of the nerve trunk. Nerve mobilization allows primary repair of the sectioned nerve by end-to-end neurorrhaphy if the gap is less than 1 cm. When the nerve gap exceeds 1 cm, autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard of treatment. To overcome the limited availability and the donor site morbidity, other techniques have been used: vascularized nerve grafts, cellular and acellular allografts, nerve conduits, nerve transfers, and end-to-side neurorrhaphy. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the literature on the applications of these techniques in peripheral nerve repair. Furthermore, preoperative evaluation, timing of repair, and future perspectives are also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.