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Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Practice Patterns in Breast Augmentation: A National Survey of Current Practice

Chopra, Karan MD*†; Gowda, Arvind U. MD; McNichols, Colton H.L. MD*†; Brown, Emile N. MD*†; Slezak, Sheri MD§; Rasko, Yvonne MD§

doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000000942
Aesthetic Surgery

Background Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgery procedures worldwide. Bacterial contamination is of paramount concern due to its role in biofilm formation and capsular contracture. Plastic surgeons have adopted a variety of perioperative interventions in efforts to reduce implant contamination, however definitive evidence supporting these practices is lacking.

Objective The goal of this study was to assess current practice patterns aimed at reducing implant-related infections in breast augmentation and comparing them to current evidence-based medicine recommendations.

Methods A 20-question survey assessing practices aimed at preventing breast implant associated infections was generated and distributed via SurveyMonkey to members of the American Society of Plastic Surgery whose electronic mail addresses were listed on the American Society of Plastic Surgery member website in April 2015.

Results A total of 253 responses were received from the survey. Of the respondents, 81% were in private practice. Respondents averaged 21 ± 9 years in practice, and 69 ± 111 breast augmentations performed per year. A majority of surgeons used Chlorhexidine to prepare the surgical site (45%) and triple antibiotic solution both as a soak for the implant before placement (40%) as well as for implant pocket irrigation (47%). A no-touch technique using the Keller Funnel was adopted by 42% of surgeons. Regarding antibiotic use in the postoperative period, first-generation cephalosporins were used by the majority of respondents (79%), and the most common duration was for 4 to 6 days (45%).

Conclusions Although there is heterogeneity in specific aspects of antimicrobial prophylaxis during breast augmentation, there is a clear trend toward practice modification geared towards preventing bacterial contamination in breast augmentation. Surgeons may benefit from high-level studies designed to create standardized evidence-based practice guidelines.

From the *Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital; †Division of Plastics & Reconstructive Surgery, The University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD; ‡Division of Plastic Surgery, Yale University, New Haven, CT; §Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, The University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD.

Received February 16, 2016, and accepted for publication, after revision September 21, 2016.

Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared.

Reprints: Yvonne Rasko, MD, 22S. Greene St. S8D09, Baltimore, MD 21201. E-mail:

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