Indocyanine Green Lymphographic Signs of Lymphatic Collateral Formation in Lower Extremity Lymphedema After Cancer ResectionTashiro, Kensuke MD; Shibata, Takashi MD; Mito, Daisuke MD; Ishiura, Ryohei MD; Kato, Motoi MD; Yamashita, Shuji MD; Narushima, Mitsunaga MD; Iida, Takuya MD; Koshima, Isao MDAnnals of Plastic Surgery: August 2016 - Volume 77 - Issue 2 - p 213–216 doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000000599 Reconstructive Surgery Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Indocyanine green lymphography has recently been used to assess lymphatic vessel function in lymphedema patients. Postoperative collateral lymphatic vessels toward ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes are rarely seen above the umbilical level in lower lymphedema patients. Between January 2012 and December 2014, we performed indocyanine green lymphography of 192 limbs in 96 lower extremity lymphedema cases. As a result, dermal back flow appeared in 95 cases, with 38 in the lower abdominal area and 31 in the genital area. We confirmed 3 cases of superficial lymphatic collateral ways extending above the umbilical level to the axillary lymph nodes. All 3 cases had similarity in lower abdominal edema, so excessive lymphatic fluid in the lower abdomen was assumed to be the cause. Lymphatic collateral ways from abdomen to axillary lymph nodes in this study was likely to be designed to prevent the progress of lymphedema. From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Received March 14, 2015, and accepted for publication, after revision June 18, 2015. Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared. Reprints: Kensuke Tashiro, MD, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113-8655, Japan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.