ResearchChlorogenic Acid Enhances Abdominal Skin Flap Survival Based on Epigastric Artery in Nondiabetic and Diabetic RatsBagdas, Deniz DVM, PhD; Etoz, Betul Cam MD, PhD; Gul, Zulfiye MS; Ozyigit, Musa Ozgur DVM, PhD; Cinkilic, Nilufer PhD; Inan, Sevda DVM, MS; Buyukcoskun, Naciye Isbil PhD; Ozluk, Kasim PhD; Gurun, Mine Sibel MD, PhDAuthor Information From the *Experimental Animals Breeding and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, †Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, ‡Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, §Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and ∥Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey. Received March 8, 2014, and accepted for publication, after revision, June 6, 2014. Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: This research was funded by a grant from Uludag University (Grant no: KUAP [T] 2012/37) to Dr Deniz Bagdas. All authors of this research article have directly participated in the planning, execution, or analysis of this study. The authors’ responsibilities were as follows: Deniz Bagdas performed research and was granted funds by Uludag University. Deniz Bagdas and Betul Cam Etoz performed in vivo study. Deniz Bagdas and Zulfiye Gul performed biochemical assays. Sevda Inan Ozturkoglu and Musa Ozgur Ozyigit performed histopathological analyses. Deniz Bagdas and Nilufer Cinkilic analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. Naciye Isbil Buyukcoskun and Kasim Ozluk contributed to scientific work and revised the manuscript. Mine Sibel Gurun contributed to scientific work, contributed to the study design, and revised the manuscript. Reprints: Deniz Bagdas, DVM, PhD, Experimental Animals Breeding and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Uludag University, Bursa 16059, Turkey. E-mail: [email protected]; Betul Cam Etoz, MD, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Uludag University, Bursa 16059, Turkey. E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]. Annals of Plastic Surgery: August 2016 - Volume 77 - Issue 2 - p e21-e25 doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000000313 Buy Metrics Abstract Previous studies showed that chlorogenic acid (CGA) accelerates wound healing via its antioxidant activity. We aimed to investigate the effect of CGA in an experimental epigastric abdominal skin flap model in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Rats were firstly divided into 2 groups: nondiabetic and diabetic. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. Then, 4 subgroups were created for each group: vehicle as well as 0.2 mg/0.5 mL, 1 mg/0.5 mL, and 5 mg/0.5 mL CGA treatments. Right epigastric artery–based abdominal skin flaps were elevated and sutured back into their original position. Chlorogenic acid or vehicle was injected once into the femoral arteries by leaving the epigastric artery as the single artery feeding the flaps during the injection. On postoperative day 7, flap survivals were evaluated, and the rats were killed. Distal flap tissues were collected for histopathological and biochemical assays. Chlorogenic acid showed greater flap survival in both nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Capillary density was increased, and necrosis was reduced in the CGA-treated rats. Chlorogenic acid decreased malondialdehyde levels as well as increased reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in the flap tissues. This study showed that CGA significantly improved flap survival by its antioxidant activities with intra-arterial local injections. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.