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Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia: Complications and Outcomes

Li, Chun-Chang MD; Fu, Ju-Peng MD; Chang, Shun-Cheng MD; Chen, Tim-Mo MD; Chen, Shyi-Gen MD

doi: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e318222834d
Breast Surgery

Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Multiple surgical options have been used to improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approaches to the treatment of gynecomastia and their outcomes over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical correction of gynecomastia in our department between 2000 and 2010 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and revision rate. The surgical result was evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 41 patients with 75 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) and isolated UAL. The surgical revision rate for all patients was 4.8%. The skin-sparing procedure gave good surgical results in grade IIb and grade III gynecomastia with low revision and complication rates. The self-assessment report revealed a good level of overall satisfaction and improvement in self-confidence (average scores 9.4 and 9.2, respectively, on a 10-point scale). The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Subcutaneous mastectomy combined with UAL could be used as the first choice for surgical treatment of grade II and III gynecomastia.

From the Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Received February 6, 2011, and accepted for publication, after revision, May 2, 2011.

Conflicts of interest and sources of funding: none declared.

Reprints: Shyi-Gen Chen, Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Number 325, Cheng-Kung Rd, Sec 2, Taipei 114, Taiwan. E-mail:

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.